Among many agreements, there was a separate agreement with the United States, the Chester Concession. In the United States, the treaty was rejected by several groups, including the Committee Against the Treaty of Lausanne (COLT), and on January 18, 1927, the United States Senate refused to ratify the treaty by 50 votes to 34, six votes less than the two-thirds required by the Constitution. [20] Therefore, Turkey cancelled the concession. [9] It is possible to strike a balance between the Lausanne II Treaties and the « Treaty of Nanking » that China ceded to Britain after the First Opium War, by signing the Chenba Agreement to end the First Anglo-Chinese Conflict. In 1839, Britain invaded China to break opposition to its participation in the country`s economic and political affairs, and one of the main objectives of the British War was the occupation of Hong Kong Island, populated on the coasts of southeastern China. The head of Hong Kong`s new government, Tung Chee Hwa, has defined a policy based on the concept of « One Country, Two Systems » that maintains Hong Kong`s role as a major capitalist center in Asia. Subsequently, the « Lausanne II Conference », whose work lasted three months, led to the signing of the « Treaty of Lausanne », an international peace agreement, on 24 July 1923, at the Hotel Beau Rivage Plus in Lausanne, in the south of Switzerland, the victorious powers after the First World War (notably Great Britain, France and Italy) and the Ottoman Empire, which chaired its delegation to the conference, Ismet Inonu, on the basis of which the Ottoman Empire was formally divided, and the Turkish Republic was founded under the presidency of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Lloyd George said the treaty was a « pathetic, cowardly and infamous surrender. » [26] [29] • Abolition of the « Treaty of Sevres » and its unfair clauses on the Ottoman Empire and the creation of what was later known as the secular « Turkish Republic », after the abolition of the Islamic caliphate system and the delimitation of the borders of Greece and Bulgaria with the Turkish state that maintained the annexation of Istanbul and Western Thuringia, and contained provisions relating to the advance payment of the debt of the Ottoman State. One can therefore understand some aspects of the ongoing dispute between Turkey and the West. The areas of southern Syria and Iraq, in the Arabian Peninsula, which remained under Turkish control when the Mudros ceasefire was signed on October 30, 1918, were not explicitly mentioned in the text of the treaty.

However, the definition of Turkey`s southern border in Article 3 also meant that Turkey had officially ceded it.

Par